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After over 30 years of reform and opening up, China's aggregate economic volume is now the second largest in the world. Over the past decade many provinces in the western region of China have implemented ecological migration projects of different scales, which have attracted considerable attention both in China and abroad. The projects indicate, first, that there is an urgent need for this type of endeavor: whether the goal is to reduce poverty or to protect the environment, we need to move the poor populations out of the ecologically fragile regions. Secondly, the projects indicate that the Chinese government is capable of meeting this need. Migration projects are complex and costly and without sufficient financial resources and systematic planning, migration may fail to reduce poverty, and could even aggravate it. The rapid economic growth in China, however, makes such migration projects viable.
Master the fundamental math skills necessary to quantify and evaluate a broad range of environmental questions.<br> <br> Environmental issues are often quantitative--how much land, how many people, what amount of pollution. Computer programs are useful, but there is no substitute for being able to use a simple calculation to slice through to the crux of the problem. Having a grasp of how the factors interact and whether the results make sense allows one to explain and argue a point of view forcefully to diverse audiences.<br> <br> With an engaging, down-to-earth style and practical problem-solving approach, Ecological Numeracy makes it easy to understand and master basic mathematical concepts and techniques that are applicable to life-cycle assessment, energy consumption, land use, pollution generation, and a broad range of other environmental issues. Robert Herendeen brings the numbers to life with dozens of fascinating, often entertaining examples and problems.<br> <br> Requiring only a moderate quantitative background, Ecological Numeracy is a superb introduction for advanced undergraduate students in environmental science, planning, geography, and physical and natural sciences. It is also a valuable professional resource for environmental managers, regulators, and administrators.
The use of aggregate data for the calculation of subgroup estimates has been recognized as a methodological challenge with the potential for resulting in substantial bias. A recently developed method of analyzing grouped data allows for the calculation of lower level estimates with corresponding measures of uncertainty and model fit. While the introduction of this new method may allow for the use of grouped data to create estimates of lower level proportions, the use of these estimates for comparing outcomes across areas with measureable contextual influence has not been evaluated. This study aims to assess a recently introduced method of calculating subgroup estimates by evaluating each stage of the process from a contextual effects perspective. This study addressed the following questions: - Can subgroup estimates produced by this method account for differences in outcomes that extend beyond differenced in group demographics? What assumptions do these methods make about the nature of differences across groups? This book is addressed to social and behavioral researchers working with individual-level and grouped data.
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