Since its discovery Antarctica has held a deep fascination for biologists. Extreme environmental conditions, seasonality and isolation have lead to some of the most striking examples of natural selection and adaptation on Earth. Paradoxically, some of these adaptations may pose constraints on the ability of the Antarctic biota to respond to climate change. Parts of Antarctica are showing some of the largest changes in temperature and other environmental conditions in the world. In this volume, published in association with the Royal Society, leading polar scientists present a synthesis of the latest research on the biological systems in Antarctica, covering organisms from microbes to vertebrate higher predators. This book comes at a time when new technologies and approaches allow the implications of climate change and other direct human impacts on Antarctica to be viewed at a range of scales; across entire regions, whole ecosystems and down to the level of species and variation within their genomes. Chapters address both Antarctic terrestrial and marine ecosystems, and the scientific and management challenges of the future are explored. <p> </p>
Practical ideas provided by a case study of the Panama Canal Watershed Exciting opportunities await the use of market mechanisms for protecting forest ecosystems. However, questions remain on how to best apply these mechanisms. Emerging Markets for Ecosystem Services: A Case Study of the Panama Canal Watershed provides an integrated, interdisciplinary methodological approach for evaluating market opportunities for watershed services, carbon sequestration, and biodiversity protection. Using the Panama Canal Watershed as a case study example, this probing resource addresses the main questions often asked about the various practical aspects of the emerging markets for ecosystem services, including quantifying value, payment structure, and equitable distribution of benefits. Environmental issues are often at odds with economic and business concerns. Emerging Markets for Ecosystem Services examines practical strategies to integrate diverse aspects into coherent strategies that benefit all. A scientific overview of the science and current knowledge provides a solid foundation to build policy and positive direction using the Panama Canal Watershed as an example. This unique resource sheds useful light on the challenges and provides insightful recommendations for areas struggling with ecosystem issues and the application of market mechanisms. This text is extensively referenced and includes several tables to clearly illustrate data. Topics in Emerging Markets for Ecosystem Services include:
This volume summarises the result of an interdisciplinary research programme entitled `Rehabilitation of the Atmosphere of the New States of Germany - Effects on Terrestrial Ecosystems'. Before the unification of Germany, emission loads of SO2 and dust particles were up to 18-fold higher in East than in West Germany. However, emission rates have decreased significantly since reunification in 1990, due to the breakdown of a large number of industrial and particularly lignite- fired powerplants and the implementation of clean air technologies. In order to study the effects of these dramatic changes in atmospheric chemistry on terrestrial ecosystems, comprehensive field studies were conducted in pine forest ecosystems along an historic gradient of atmospheric deposition rates in the northeastern lowlands of Germany. The fast and dramatic reduction of dust particle and SO2 emissions offers a unique opportunity to test the role of SO2 and alkaline particle deposition with regard to changes or damage to forest ecosystems and whether the forest stands return to a state of resilience. In this respect, this ecosystem experiment can be looked upon as a roof experiment without a roof.
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