This book critically examines the idea that the sustainability of agriculture could be improved by mimicking the structure and processes occurring in natural ecosystems. Researchers from around the world present comparative studies of multi-species farming systems, natural ecosystems and conventional agriculture. Case studies from Europe, Africa, Asia, Australia, and North and South America examine the implications of increasing the complexity of farming systems on water and nutrient cycling, productivity and resilience. Theoretical issues discussed include the role of biodiversity in agriculture, the trade-off between perenniality and productivity, the choice to integrate or segregate production and conservation in an agricultural landscape, and the social and economic challenges to adopting complex farming systems. One section is devoted to the application of this concept in southern Australia, where 15 million hectares of land are expected to be affected by salinity by the middle of the next century unless there is a significant change in agricultural practice.
Take a journey to the words driest, coldest, and wildest places.
Archaeological data now show that relatively intense human adaptations to coastal environments developed much earlier than once believed - more than 125,000 years ago. With our oceans and marine fisheries currently in a state of crisis, coastal archaeological sites contain a wealth of data that can shed light on the history of human exploitation of marine ecosystems and marine conservation principles. This volume, the first global survey of these topics, brings together researchers working in coastal areas around the world to address the links between archaeology, history, marine ecology, and fisheries management. In eleven case studies from the Americas, the Pacific Islands, the North Sea, the Caribbean, Europe, and Africa, they cover diverse marine ecosystems ranging from kelp forests to coral reefs and mangroves and reach into deep history to discover how humans interacted with and affected these aquatic environments.
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