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Oil Spill - Environment - Dispersant - Ecological Impact - Geomechanics - Monitoring - Ecosystem Listen to Coronavirus Patient Zero Antarctic Glacial History And World Palaeoenvironments RRP $876.99 . RRP $406.99 The purpose of this collection of essays is to shed some light on the complex relationship between environmental quality and the distribution of income. Are the preferences of the poor towards a cleaner environment really different from those of the rich? Environmental economists have traditionally focused on efficiency issues. In their analyses the quality of the environment is usually related to aggregate or average variables, like per capita income; policy recommendations are usually formulated considering efficiency with no regard for equity and also the predicted effects of policies are evaluated in aggregate terms. The essays collected in this volume go into the problem of the relationship between environmental quality and income distribution. The book's opening essay shows how different theories of economic growth and environmental quality seem to suggest that the higher the level of income the higher is the value of environmental protection. The essays that follow, a mix of already published papers and of papers solicited for this book, analyse the relationship between environmental quality and income distribution from different perspectives (both micro and macro) and on the basis of more than one methodology. This book highlights that the preferences of the poor towards a cleaner environment may differ from those of the rich, but income is also very likely to represent only one factor affecting them. The essays consider other relevant factors affecting preferences for environmental quality. What clearly emerges is that the distribution of costs and benefits of environmental policies is the key for their successful implementation, and that further research is needed to both address the distributional effects themselves and the strategies to mitigate them. RRP $684.99 Preface. Acknowledgements. Part 1: Introduction. A. Scope of the subject. B. Description of the research program. C. Outline of the monograph. Part 2: An Introduction to Mathematical and Physical Modelling of Microwave Scattering and Polarimetric Remote Sensing. 1. Introduction to Inverse Radar Scattering Problems. 1.1. Theoretical aspects. 1.2. Pattern recognition and evaluation parameters. 1.3. Conditions for implementing inverse scattering techniques. 1.4. Polarimetric radar. 2. Description of Remote Sensing by Radar Polarimetry. 2.1. Physical process of encoding/decoding of polarimetric data. 2.2. Physical realization of a polarimetric radar. 2.3. Methods of measurements of polarimetric data. 2.4. Radar techniques for polarimetric remote sensing. 3. Physical and Mathematical Modelling. 3.1. Physical modelling. 3.2. Mathematical modelling. 4. Summary of Available Scattering Methods. 4.1. Introduction. 4.2. Transport theory: radiative transfer equation. Part 3: Diagnostics of the Earth s Environment Using Polarimetric Radar Monitoring: Formulation and Potential Applications. 5. Basic Mathematical Modelling for Random Environments. 5.1. Introduction. 5.2. Space spectrum method. 5.3. Solutions. 5.4. Conclusions and applications. 6. Review of Vegetation Models. 6.1. Introduction. 6.2. Biometrical characteristics of vegetation. 6.3. Electrophysical characteristics of vegetation. 6.4. Electrodynamic model of vegetation. 6.5. Determination of biometrical characteristics of vegetation from radar remote sensing data. 6.6. Classification of vegetation. 6.7. Conclusions and applications. 7. Electrodynamic and Physical Characteristics of Earth Surfaces. 7.1. Introduction. 7.2. Complex permittivity. 7.3. Dielectric and physical parameters. 7.4. Interrelations between dielectric and physical characteristics. 7.5. Conclusions and applications. 8. Reflection of Electromagnetic Waves from Non-Uniform Layered Structures. 8.1. Introduction 8.2. Deterministic approach. 8.3. Stochastic case of three layers with flat boundaries. 8.4. Conclusions and applications. 9. Radiowave Reflection from Structures with Internal Ruptures. 9.1. Introduction. 9.2. Reflection from a symmetrical wedge-shaped fracture. 9.3. Reflection from an asymmetric wedge-shaped fracture. 9.4. Reflection from a pit with spherical form. 9.5. Reflection from a rectangular pit with finite depth. 9.6. Antenna pattern and fracture filling effects. 9.7. Combined model. 9.8. Conclusions and applications. 10. Scattering of Waves by a Layer with a Rough Boundary. 10.1. Introduction. 10.2. Initial equations and solutions. 10.3. Model parameters of an ensemble of co-directional cylinders. 10.4. Conclusions and applications. 11. Polarimetric Methods for Measuring Permittivity Characteristics of the Earth's Surface. 11.1. Introduction. 11.2. Determination of the complex permittivity. 11.3. The KLL sphere. 11.4. Conclusions and applications. 12. Implementing Solutions to Inverse Scattering Problems: Signal Processing and Applications. 12.1. Introduction. 12.2. Radar imaging. 12.3. Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR). 12.4. Radar altimeter. 12.5. Tropospheric-scatter radar. 12.6. Atmospheric monitoring with polarimetry. Part 4: Concluding Remarks. 13. Review of Potential Applications of Radar Polarimetry. 13.1. Introduction. 13.2. Results of polarimetric remote sensing. 13.3. Comparison-review of the inverse scattering models analyzed. 14. Historical Development of Radar Polarimetry in Russia. 14.1. Introduction. 14.2. General theory of polarization of radiowaves. 14.3. The polarization theory of the radar targets. 14.4. Polarization selection. 14.5. Development of algorithms for the reception of polarized signals. 14.6.Polarization modulation. 14.7. The polarization analysis of scattered and reflected radiowaves for studying the environment. 14.8. Applications of radar-polarimetry in remote sensing systems. Appendix A. Appendix B. Appendix C. Appendix D. Appendix E. Appendix F. References. Search
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