Environmental permits enable regulatory agencies to control the disturbance and degradation of the environment caused by man's activities. Created by governments through legislation, the permit processes are administered by elected officials. Environmental legislation is relatively new as an independent field of the law: the laws themselves are primarily a conglomeration of older legal doctrines from other fields of law, modified and adapted for particular situations (Landau and Rheingold 1971). Like other laws, environmental laws are meant to serve and protect the rights and well-being of the public. However, like other laws, they have created confusion, a proliferation of costly paperwork, and some inequities. Numerous statutes, dealing with most aspects of pollution, exist at every level of government-so many, in fact, that they frequently conflict and overlap. These statutes establish a public policy toward polluters. They also empower the regulatory bodies that issue permits. It would be impossible to compile a list of requirements for each type of permit. Therefore, this book will acquaint the reader with the common aspects of environmental permits: their terminology, components, and application processes. This book covers the permit process from initial agencies/applicant contacts through application parts and procedures, to application approval. Special emphasis has been placed on bringing together copies of laws and lists of agencies as appendices. The appendices give the reader easy access to materials that will help clarify the permit process.
This book is designed to provide an accessible overview of the impact of key areas of technology on earth's environment. It makes the case that the easiest way to understand current problems is by tracing the history and development of four broad areas of technology - direct harvesting of natural resources; agriculture(and population); chemical technologies; and energy use).
Combining approaches drawn from environmental biology and the history of science and technology, it describes the motivations behind many technological advances and the settings in which they occurred, before tracing their ultimate environmental impacts. Four broad areas of human activity are described:
Over-harvesting of natural resources using the examples of hunting, fishing and freshwater use
Farming and other land use practices
Discovery, synthesis and use of manufactured chemicals
The development of sources of artificial energy and the widespread pollution caused by power generation and energy-consuming devices
These innovations have been driven by various forces, but in nearly every case, new technologies emerged out of fascinating, psychologically-rich, human experiences. This book provides an introduction to these complex developments and will be essential reading for students of science, technology and society, environmental history and the history of science and technology.
This comprehensive work, covering a wide spectrum of the marketing environment, provides a fundamental basis to marketing geography for those concerned with market research, comparative and international marketing, and the study of economic geography. The book focusses on the spatial patterns and processes in marketing, and the development conflicts occur in the marketing system, and how evolution and change in marketing systems is realised through the resolution of these conflicts. The major sectors and institutions in the marketing system are described and a detailed study is made of the ways they change and interact.
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