Since the 1950s, the pines native to the San Bernardino Mountains in Southern California have shown symptoms of decline that have proven to result from exposure to ozone, a major plant-damaging gas in photochemical oxidant air pollution. Because of their proximity to major urban areas, the San Bernardino Mountains have served as a natural laboratory for studying effects of oxidant and acidic air pollution on a mixed-conifer forest. This volume presents a body of research conducted over more than thirty years, including an intensive interdisciplinary five-year study begun in 1991. Chapters include studies of the relationships of biogeography and climate to the region's air pollution, the chemical and physiological mechanisms of ozone injury, as well as the impacts of nitrogen-containing pollutants and natural stresses on polluted forests. The synthesis of such long-term studies provides insights into the combined influences of pollutants on ecosystem function in forested regions with Mediterranean-type climates.
Tsunami can be defined as a long, high sea wave caused by an earthquake or other disturbance. This book contains information for the purpose of in-depth understanding of the vast topic of tsunami dynamics. It is a compilation of scientific works reflecting state-of-the-art of tsunami research at distinct levels. Several contributions in this book encompass an array of themes ranging from geological evidence to post-trauma human care, comprising of pre-tsunami analyses and modeling to post-tsunami management and preparedness methods. The book consists of evidence and case studies from distinct regions of the world, such as the isolated Hawaiian Islands and Northern Indian Ocean as well as the edges of Atlantic and Eastern Mediterranean.
As one of the world's largest industries, tourism carries with it significant social, environmental, economic and political impacts. Although tourism can provide significant economic benefits for some destinations, the image of tourism as a benign and environmentally friendly industry has often been challenged. There is a clear and growing body of evidence that suggests that the effects of tourism development are far more complex than policy-makers usually suggest and that the impacts of tourism occur not just at the destination but at all stages of a tourist's trip. Furthermore, tourism does not exist in a vacuum. Broader social and environmental changes also shape the form, growth and experience of tourism development.
This text provides a clear, accessible and up-to-date synthesis of tourism's role in our contemporary world, both as an agent of change, and as a response to it. Tourism related change is approached from a framework that illustrates the changing environments in which they occur, including the spatial scale of such impacts and the effects of these impacts over time. This framework is then applied to the economic, socio-cultural and physical dimensions of tourism. After examining the different forms of tourism-related impacts, the book then discusses the role of planning as part of an integrated approach to the mitigation of undesirable impacts and the maximization of the desirable benefits of tourism development. Case studies and illustrations from a variety of locations from around the world are used throughout the book to exemplify key themes and issues; additionally figures and tables serve to elucidate statistical data.
Understanding and Managing Tourism Impacts illustrates that when well managed tourism can make a positive contribution to destinations. The book's use of issues of scale, time and form to illustrate the effects of tourism provide an accessible and significant reminder that tourism's impacts vary over time and space, affects both the visitor and the host community, and can be unpredictable in its consequences. Chapter objectives, recommended readings, and links to web-based material help students, practitioners and researchers to grasp the broader implications of tourism development in today's world. With tourism increasingly being implicated as a factor in climate and environmental change, and with the benefits and costs of tourism as a form of economic development being examined more closely than ever, this book provides a timely contribution to help clarify the potentials and pitfalls of contemporary tourism.
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