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The focus of this essay is to provide an analysis of the effect of social media on the Arab Spring uprising in Egypt in 2011. What has now been coined the "Arab Spring" began with protests in Tunisia in late 2010. It then quickly spread to countries throughout the Middle East and North Africa. It resulted in national leadership changes in Egypt as well as Tunisia, Yemen and Libya. In Egypt, President Hosni Mubarak ended his presidency on Friday, February 11, 2011 as a result of the actions of protestors, numbering in excess of 2 million in Egypt. Communication mechanisms always play a role in grass root uprisings which have led to national leadership changes. There has been much discussion and some academic work on what part social media played in Egypt's Arab Spring uprising. Some even credit the start of the Arab Spring uprising in Egypt with a Facebook page administered by Wael Ghonim. The site, We are all Khaled Saeed, brought worldwide attention to the death of Khaled Mohamed Saeed; a young Egyptian man that died while in police custody. This essay seeks to understand what impact social media played on the Arab Spring uprising in Egypt. Was social media simply a communication tool utilized in the Arab Spring uprising in Egypt? Or, was social media in Egypt more than a tool. Was it an accelerator to the eventual outcome of the uprising?
This volume addresses the topic of circular migration with regard to its multiple dimensions and human, political and civil rights implications from a global perspective. It combines theoretical and empirical studies and presents different case studies illustrating circular migration patterns and policies in different world regions. Circular migration processes - understood as the back-and-forth movement of people between countries and regions- form part of the changing nature of migration movements across the world at the beginning of the 21st century. Over the past decades, international, regional and internal migration flows have shown a quantitative increase and have changed in scope, context, origin and nature. Migration projects are every time more open-ended, multi-directional and flexible and often include some type of circularity. Instead of mere "push-pull-scenarios", people migrate for many different reasons, including personal, family, professional, academic or political ones. In the 21st century migration journeys and the reasons underlying them are multiple and more diverse than ever before.
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