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This study paper investigates the relation between women and men's life stages in Denmark, and their time allocation in paid work, household work, childcare, and leisure time, and, in particular, how this allocation changes when moving from one stage to another stage. The study uses a new Danish panel dataset merged with Danish administrative register data, which allows for analyzing the impact of individual endogenous characteristics of the respondents, such as preferences for doing specific activities. It has been found that the labor supply of fathers of preschool children is not different from that of young men without children, while there is a negative correlation between mothers of preschool children and young women's labor supply. In comparing fathers and mothers of school children with those of preschool children, the study finds a positive correlation in both genders' labor supply. However, fixed effects estimations do not result in a reduction in mothers, nor in fathers, to preschool children's labor supply, indicating that there are some inborn characteristics for the other life-stage changes, which are not revealed by doing ordinary cross-sectional analyses.
The aim of this book is to present pedestrian injuries from a biomechanical perspective. We aim to give a detailed treatment of the physics of pedestrian impact, as well as a review of the accident databases and the relevant injury criteria used to assess pedestrian injuries. A further focus will be the effects on injury outcome of (1) pedestrian/vehicle position and velocity at impact and (2) the influence of vehicle design on injury outcome. Most of the content of this book has been published by these and other authors in various journals, but this book will provide a comprehensive treatment of the biomechanics of pedestrian impacts for the first time. It will therefore be of value to new and established researchers alike.
After almost fifteen years in the laboratory and in the test plots, bioengineered crops arrived to the market in the mid-1990s. Adoption was rapid and wide- spread. In 1996, less than 4 million acres in six countries were planted with bioengineered crops. By 2001, worldwide adoption had expanded to more than 115 million acres. Important questions quickly followed. What were the factors driving the widespread adoption and rapid diffusion of these first-generation agrobiotech- nologies? What were their economic and environmental impacts? How were such impacts distributed among large and small producers, innovators and adopters, developed and developing countries, exporters and importers, domestic and foreign consumers? How were such impacts and their distribu- tion affected by market structure and government policies? A growing body of literature has provided valuable answers to some of these questions. However, an assessment that accounts for the full range of differences in geography, weather, pests, farm structures, and institutions had not been completed. It brings together leading This book provides just such an assessment. authors from around the world who have analyzed the production, environ- mental, and economic impacts of first-generation crop biotechnologies. By pooling experiences across various countries, time periods, crops, and traits, this global panel is able to synthesize a complete picture of the impacts of first-generation crop biotechnologies.
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