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"This book discusses the effects of taxation on the economy and its development. It aims to provide the reader with the necessary empirical information, while at the same time presenting an overview of the latest theory. In doing so, it touches on many relevant policy issues. This important book will appeal not only to economists but also to public choice scholars and political scientists."--BOOK JACKET.
Archaeological data now show that relatively intense human adaptations to coastal environments developed much earlier than once believed - more than 125,000 years ago. With our oceans and marine fisheries currently in a state of crisis, coastal archaeological sites contain a wealth of data that can shed light on the history of human exploitation of marine ecosystems and marine conservation principles. This volume, the first global survey of these topics, brings together researchers working in coastal areas around the world to address the links between archaeology, history, marine ecology, and fisheries management. In eleven case studies from the Americas, the Pacific Islands, the North Sea, the Caribbean, Europe, and Africa, they cover diverse marine ecosystems ranging from kelp forests to coral reefs and mangroves and reach into deep history to discover how humans interacted with and affected these aquatic environments.
Significant growth in economic activity in the Arctic has added weight to the argument that projects must be developed responsibly and sustainably. Addressing growing concerns regarding the exploitation of the Arctic's natural resources, this timely book presents and evaluates examples of best practice in Arctic environmental impact assessment. Timo Koivurova and Pamela Lesser succinctly synthesise primary data gathered from interviews with local communities, indigenous peoples, NGOs, government officials and businesses in Finland, Sweden, Norway, Greenland, Iceland, Canada, Russia and the USA. Considering all stakeholder perspectives, they present the regulatory processes of all eight Arctic countries, and also provide helpful flowcharts that depict the process graphically for each country. Measuring these practices against the 1997 Guidelines for Environmental Impact Assessment in the Arctic, the only Arctic environmental impact assessment guidance document that has been officially approved by the ministers of all eight Arctic countries, this book identifies key areas where adherence to best practice is high, such as stakeholder outreach and development, as well as those areas that fall short. Thorough and accessible, Environmental Impact Assessment in the Arctic will provide an excellent reference for academics in the fields of law and environmental studies as well as for government officials and stakeholders who stand to benefit from best practice.
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