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Hydraulic Fracturing Impacts and Technologies: A Multidisciplinary Perspective serves as an introduction to hydraulic fracturing and provides balanced coverage of its benefits and potential negative effects. Presenting a holistic assessment of hydraulic fracturing and its environmental impacts, this book chronicles the history and development of unconventional oil and gas production and describes the risks associated with the use of these technologies. More specifically, it addresses hydraulic fracturing's use and dependence on large amounts of water as a fracturing medium. It examines the limits of reusing flowback and produced water, explores cost-effective ways to clean or effectively dispose of water used in fracturing, and provides suggestions for the efficient use, discovery, and recycle potential of non-potable water. Utilizing a team of experts from industry and academia, the text provides readers with a multiple lens approach-incorporating various perspectives and solutions surrounding this evolving technology. This book: * Leads with an overview of hydraulic fracturing operations and technologies * Considers a variety of legal issues associated with hydraulic fracturing * Summarizes human health and environmental risks associated with hydraulic fracturing operations * Discusses the analytes chosen by researchers as possible indicators of groundwater contamination from unconventional drilling processes * Presents strategies for reducing the freshwater footprint of hydraulic fracturing * Discusses water treatment technologies and solutions to recycle and reuse produced waters, and more Hydraulic Fracturing Impacts and Technologies: A Multidisciplinary Perspective brings together experts from disciplines that include petroleum, civil, and environmental engineering; environmental sciences chemistry toxicology; law; media; and communications; and provides readers with a multidisciplinary outlook and unbiased, scientifically credible solutions to issues surrounding hydraulic fracturing operations.
Life on Earth is critically dependent upon the continuous cycling of water between oceans, continents and the atmosphere. Precipitation (including rain, snow, and hail) is the primary mechanism for transporting water from the atmosphere back to the Earth's surface. It is also the key physical process that links aspects of climate, weather, and the global hydrological cycle. Changes in precipitation regimes and the frequency of extreme weather events, such as floods, droughts, severe ice/snow storms, monsoon fluctuations and hurricanes are of great potential importance to life on the planet. One of the factors that could contribute to precipitation modification is aerosol pollution from various sources such as urban air pollution and biomass burning. Natural and anthropogenic changes in atmospheric aerosols might have important implications for precipitation by influencing the hydrological cycle, which in turn could feed back to climate changes.
From an Earth Science perspective, a key question is how changes expected in climate will translate into changes in the hydrological cycle, and what trends may be expected in the future. We require a much better understanding and hence predictive capability of the moisture and energy storages and exchanges among the Earth's atmosphere, oceans, continents and biological systems. This book is a review of our knowledge of the relationship between aerosols and precipitation reaching the Earth's surface and it includes a list of recommendations that could help to advance our knowledge in this area.
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